📒They Came Before Columbus ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

â™ Book Title : They Came Before Columbus
✍Author : Ivan Van Sertima
â™›Publisher : Random House Incorporated
♣Release Date : 1976
âśżPages : 288
â™ ISBN : UOM:39015021647352
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťThey Came Before Columbus Book Synopsis : Explorers' diaries and journals, carbon-14-dated sculptures, Arab documents and maps, and dated skeletons provide evidence for the pre-Columbia n presence in the Americas of black men and their influence on the Olmec, Mayan , and Aztec civilizations

📒They Came Before Columbus ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

â™ Book Title : They Came Before Columbus
✍Author : Ivan Van Sertima
â™›Publisher : Random House Incorporated
♣Release Date : 1976
âśżPages : 284
â™ ISBN : UCSC:32106017436624
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťThey Came Before Columbus Book Synopsis : Examines cultural analogies between Native Americans and Africans, offering evidence of the presence of African explorers in the New World centuries before the arrival of Columbus.

📒They Came Before Columbus ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

â™ Book Title : They Came Before Columbus
✍Author : Ivan Van Sertima
â™›Publisher : New York : Vintage Books
♣Release Date : 1989
âśżPages : 288
â™ ISBN : 067972530X
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťThey Came Before Columbus Book Synopsis : "The African presence in ancient America"--Jacket subtitle.

📒The First Americans Were Africans ✍ David Imhotep Ph. D.

â™ Book Title : The First Americans Were Africans
✍Author : David Imhotep Ph. D.
â™›Publisher : AuthorHouse
♣Release Date : 2011-03
âśżPages : 256
â™ ISBN : 9781456711290
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťThe First Americans Were Africans Book Synopsis : Cowboys and Indians? Not hardly. The Cowboys, actually, came on the scene very late. The First Americans, as seen on the cover of this book, will be thoroughly covered. The picture was taken by the crew of The HMS Challenger Expedition, 1872-1876 A.D. at the most Southern region of South America, at a place called Tierra del Fuego. This picture can be seen today in the Natural Museum of London. Africans not only came before Columbus and Clovis, but were in the Americans far before any other group, at least 60,000 years ago. We will go through evidence exposed by a panel of credible scholars, professors and researchers. The evidence lies in several different scientific fields. Do not forget the Egyptians. They were also here far before the Vikings or Columbus. They left structures above and below the waves in far away places in North America. From the East to the West Coasts; from the valleys to mountain tops that still carry their names. You will read about remnants of their artifacts, writings, architecture and more. For years this story was hidden and forbidden to be repeated. Researchers who dared to bring out new finds that were against the accepted history were intimidated, funding terminated and in some cases jobs and careers put in jeopardy. Authors such as Dr. Imhotep are now throwing caution to the wind and lifting the veil of secrecy never to be closed again. This is a true history for all to learn and enjoy and there is much more on its way ... as the veil of secrecy and concealed information is made available to the public in my future, "Lifting of the Veil Series."

📒Early America Revisited ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

â™ Book Title : Early America Revisited
✍Author : Ivan Van Sertima
â™›Publisher : Transaction Publishers
♣Release Date : 1998
âśżPages : 209
â™ ISBN : 0765804638
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťEarly America Revisited Book Synopsis : Early America Revisited is a vigorous defense and amplification of Ivan Van Sertima's classic work, They Came Before Columbus. The book makes a carefully balanced case for an African presence in America before Columbus' voyages. At the same time, the work in no way denies the importance of the Columbus voyages for opening up the New World to Europe, and hence changing the economic and political map of the world for all time. Van Sertima's critical cutting edge is that there is an anthropological and ethnographic dimension to the process of discovery, one in which black Africans of non-European origins played a central role. He marshals literary and pictorial evidence and shows its authenticity to be beyond question. The impact of these early discoveries is of far more than historical interest. They serve as a basis to examine anew the study of culture contacts between civilizations, and in so doing, offer a serious base to a multifaceted re-examination of earlier hypotheses of influences in both directions. Early America Revisited provides anthropological evidence about the physical presence of Africans in pre-Columbian America. It is also the study of how two peoples and cultures can lead to cross-fertilization. The borrowing of artifacts and ideas does not mean that the outsider is superior to the native, or that indigenous cultures are insignificant. Van Sertima contends that such relationships can be unpleasant as well as pleasant, conflictual as well as consensual. But, whatever the character of the interaction, its very existence merits awareness. This book is likely to engender disputes and disagreements. But there is no question that it will enrich the study of a wide range of subjects, from archaeology to anthropology, and result in profound changes in the reordering of historical priorities and pedagogy. It should be of wide interest to social scientists, historians, and all those for whom the question of race and culture is a central facet of their own work and lives. Jacqueline L. Patten Van Sertima, who is responsible for the photographic materials in this volume, has had her work exhibited at the Museum of the City of New York, the National Urban League, Columbia University, and many galleries across the country. Her publications include The Black Photographers Annual and Black Photographers.

â™ Book Title : THEY CAME BEFORE COLUMBUS ILL
✍Author :
â™›Publisher :
♣Release Date :
âśżPages :
â™ ISBN : OCLC:969039164
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťTHEY CAME BEFORE COLUMBUS ILL Book Synopsis :

â™ Book Title : Africa and the Discovery of America
✍Author : Leo Wiener
♛Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
♣Release Date : 2012-01
âśżPages : 342
â™ ISBN : 9783864034329
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťAfrica and the Discovery of America Book Synopsis : This book is about an event in history that changed the world for all times. It is a sad story that did not have to be. What Africans and the indigenous Americans have given to the world is a part of total humanity that must be respectfully considered in order to build a world where all people can walk in peace and dignity with their respective contributions accepted.

📒Egypt Revisited ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

â™ Book Title : Egypt Revisited
✍Author : Ivan Van Sertima
â™›Publisher : Transaction Publishers
♣Release Date : 1989-01-01
âśżPages : 441
â™ ISBN : 0887387993
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťEgypt Revisited Book Synopsis : This volume represents a new departure in the examination of Egypt's place in the African context. It brings together the latest research of the 1980s on Nile Valley civilizations, what they achieved, and their impact on Africa and the world. The authors take an "Afrocentric" in contrast to a "Eurocentric" perspective in their studies of the birthplace of civilization. This volume includes sections on the race and origin of the ancient Egyptians, black dynasties and rulers, Egyptian science and philosophy, and great Egyptologists. It sheds new light on neglected aspects of history. Ivan Van Sertima is professor of African studies, Rutgers University, and editor of the Journal of African Civilizations. He is the author of They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America, winner of the Clarence L. Holte International Prize.

â™ Book Title : African Presence in Early Asia
✍Author : Runoko Rashidi
â™›Publisher : Transaction Publishers
♣Release Date : 1988
âśżPages : 256
â™ ISBN : 0887387179
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťAfrican Presence in Early Asia Book Synopsis : Covering a period of more than 500,000 years, examines the history of the black presence in early Asia.

📒Stolen Legacy ✍ George G. M. James

â™ Book Title : Stolen Legacy
✍Author : George G. M. James
â™›Publisher : Library of Alexandria
♣Release Date :
âśżPages : 190
â™ ISBN : 9781465516978
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťStolen Legacy Book Synopsis :

📒Before The Mayflower ✍ Lerone Bennett

â™ Book Title : Before the Mayflower
✍Author : Lerone Bennett
â™›Publisher : Johnson Publishing Company Incorporated
♣Release Date : 2003
âśżPages : 796
â™ ISBN : UOM:39076002272735
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťBefore the Mayflower Book Synopsis : Examines the history of African Americans from their African past through the Revolutionary and Civil Wars to contemporary problems and accomplishments.

📒Before Columbus ✍ Charles C. Mann

â™ Book Title : Before Columbus
✍Author : Charles C. Mann
â™›Publisher : Simon and Schuster
♣Release Date : 2009-09-08
âśżPages : 117
â™ ISBN : 9781416949008
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťBefore Columbus Book Synopsis : Based on the startling revelations that the author presented in his adult-level 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, this book for young readers is a fascinating full-color journey into the world of the many advanced cultures that populated the Americas before the arrival of European explorers.

â™ Book Title : African Presence in Early Europe
✍Author : Ivan Van Sertima
â™›Publisher : Transaction Publishers
♣Release Date : 1985
âśżPages : 317
â™ ISBN : 0887386644
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťAfrican Presence in Early Europe Book Synopsis : This book places into perspective the role of the African in world civilization, in particular his little known contributions to the advancement of Europe. A major essay on the evolution of the Caucasoid discusses recent scientific discoveries of the African fatherhood of man and the shift towards albinism (dropping of pigmentation) by the Grimaldi African during an ice age (the Wurm Interstadial) in Europe. The debt owed to African and Arab Moors for certain inventions usually credited to the Renaissance is discussed, as well as the much earlier Afro-Egyptian influence on Greek science and philosophy. The book is divided into six parts: The First Europeans: African Presence in the Ancient Mediterranean Isles and Mainland Greece; Africans in the European Religious Hierarchy (madonnas, saints and popes); African Presence in Western Europe; African Presence in Northern Europe; African Presence in Eastern Europe.

📒1491 Second Edition ✍ Charles C. Mann

â™ Book Title : 1491 Second Edition
✍Author : Charles C. Mann
â™›Publisher : Vintage
♣Release Date : 2006-10-10
âśżPages : 576
â™ ISBN : 0307278182
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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📝1491 Second Edition Book Synopsis : In this groundbreaking work of science, history, and archaeology, Charles C. Mann radically alters our understanding of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus in 1492. Contrary to what so many Americans learn in school, the pre-Columbian Indians were not sparsely settled in a pristine wilderness; rather, there were huge numbers of Indians who actively molded and influenced the land around them. The astonishing Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had running water and immaculately clean streets, and was larger than any contemporary European city. Mexican cultures created corn in a specialized breeding process that it has been called man’s first feat of genetic engineering. Indeed, Indians were not living lightly on the land but were landscaping and manipulating their world in ways that we are only now beginning to understand. Challenging and surprising, this a transformative new look at a rich and fascinating world we only thought we knew. From the Trade Paperback edition.

📒Before Columbus ✍ Felipe Fernandez-Armesto

â™ Book Title : Before Columbus
✍Author : Felipe Fernandez-Armesto
â™›Publisher : University of Pennsylvania Press
♣Release Date : 1987-06-01
âśżPages : 283
â™ ISBN : 0812214129
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťBefore Columbus Book Synopsis : Demonstrating that Columbus's voyage was a new step in a centuries-old process of European expansion, Fernandez-Armesto provides a stimulating account of the broadening of Europe's physical and mental horizons in the Middle Ages. He shows how the techniques and institutions of medieval colonial expansion that were applied to the New World made long-term conquest and settlement possible. A brief introduction analyzes the problems that face students and historians. Then, concentrating on medieval Spanish colonial development, but carefully linking that development to the wider European process of expansion, the author surveys the great areas of expansion in the Western Mediterranean: the island conquests of the House of Barcelona; the "first Atlantic Empire" in Andalusia, its environs, Valencia, and Murcia; the Genoese Mediterranean; and the North African coast. In the last four chapters, Fernandez-Armesto sketches the course and characteristics of early European expansion of the Atlantic before Columbus and highlights the impact of geography and anthropology on the discovery of "the Atlantic space." The emphasis throughout is on tracing the elements of continuity and discontinuity between Mediterranean and Atlantic worlds and studying how colonial societies originate and behave.

📒1421 ✍ Gavin Menzies

â™ Book Title : 1421
✍Author : Gavin Menzies
â™›Publisher : Random House
♣Release Date : 2012-08-31
âśżPages : 656
â™ ISBN : 9781448154838
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ť1421 Book Synopsis : On 8 March 1421, the largest fleet the world had ever seen set sail from China. The ships, some nearly five hundred feet long, were under the command of Emperor Zhu Di's loyal eunuch admirals. Their mission was 'to proceed all the way to the end of the earth to collect tribute from the barbarians beyond the seas' and unite the world in Confucian harmony. Their journey would last for over two years and take them around the globe but by the time they returned home, China was beginning its long, self-imposed isolation from the world it had so recently embraced. And so the great ships were left to rot and the records of their journey were destroyed. And with them, the knowledge that the Chinese had circumnavigated the globe a century before Magellan, reached America seventy years before Columbus, and Australia three hundred and fifty years before Cook... The result of fifteen years research, 1421 is Gavin Menzies' enthralling account of the voyage of the Chinese fleet, the remarkable discoveries he made and the persuasive evidence to support them: ancient maps, precise navigational knowledge, astronomy and the surviving accounts of Chinese explorers and the later European navigators as well as the traces the fleet left behind - from sunken junks to the votive offerings left by the Chinese sailors wherever they landed, giving thanks to Shao Lin, goddess of the sea. Already hailed as a classic, this is the story of an extraordinary journey of discovery that not only radically alters our understanding of world exploration but also rewrites history itself.

â™ Book Title : The Lost Treasure of King Juba
✍Author : Frank Joseph
â™›Publisher : Simon and Schuster
♣Release Date : 2003-03-25
âśżPages : 248
â™ ISBN : 9781591438519
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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📝The Lost Treasure of King Juba Book Synopsis : The story of a mysterious southern Illinois treasure cave and its proof of the presence of Africans in North America long before Columbus. • Includes over 100 photographs of the artifacts discovered. • Re-creates the historic voyage of King Juba and his Mauretanian sailors across the Atlantic to rebuild their society in the New World. • Explains the mystery of the Washitaws, a tribal group of African origin, first encountered by the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In 1982 Russell E. Burrows, a treasure hunter in southern Illinois, stumbled on a cache of ancient weapons, jewels, and gold sarcophagi in a remote cave. There also were stone tablets inscribed with illustrations of Roman-like soldiers, Jews, early Christians, and West African sailors. These relics fueled a bitter controversy in the archaeological community regarding their authenticity, leading Burrows to destroy the entrance to the cave. Researching more than 7,000 artifacts removed from the cave before it was sealed, Frank Joseph explains how these objects came to be buried in the middle of the United States. It started with Cleopatra, whose daughter was made queen of the semi-independent realm of Mauretania, present-day Morocco, which she ruled with her husband, King Juba II. Following the execution of their son, Ptolemy, by Emperor Caligula, the Mauretanians rebelled against their Roman overlords and made their way into what is now Ghana. There they constructed a fleet of ships for a transatlantic voyage to a land where they hoped to rebuild their kingdom safe from Roman rule. They took with them a great prize unsuccessfully sought by two Roman emperors: Cleopatra's golden treasure and King Juba's encyclopedic library of ancient wisdom. Fully illustrated with many previously unpublished photographs of artifacts retrieved from the southern Illinois site, The Lost Treasure of King Juba is a compelling story that could force us to rethink the early history of our nation and the possibility that Africans arrived on our continent nearly fifteen centuries before Columbus.

📒Deeper Roots ✍ Abdullah Hakim Quick

â™ Book Title : Deeper Roots
✍Author : Abdullah Hakim Quick
â™›Publisher :
♣Release Date : 1996
âśżPages : 80
â™ ISBN : 1897940467
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťDeeper Roots Book Synopsis :

📒Great Black Leaders ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

â™ Book Title : Great Black Leaders
✍Author : Ivan Van Sertima
â™›Publisher : Transaction Publishers
♣Release Date : 1988
âśżPages : 433
â™ ISBN : 088738739X
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťGreat Black Leaders Book Synopsis : Any selection of leaders, whatever the criteria, is inherently subjective, and this collection does not pretend to be comprehensive. It does establish clear criteria for inclusion, attempting to include outstanding individuals from America, Africa, and the Caribbean, who are clearly of global and not solely national significance. Leaders from a number of historical epochs were selected, and the editor has also included material on outstanding women leaders. Leaders who have captured the world's imagination (Shaka), or who have profoundly affected the modern period (Kwame Nkrumah) have also been represented. With one exception, Nelson Mandela, the individuals described are no longer living, to ensure that time warrants a consensus about their significance.

📒Blacks In Science ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

â™ Book Title : Blacks in Science
✍Author : Ivan Van Sertima
â™›Publisher : Transaction Publishers
♣Release Date : 1983-01-01
âśżPages : 302
â™ ISBN : 0878559418
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťBlacks in Science Book Synopsis : Providing an overview of the lost sciences of Africa and of contributions that blacks have made to modern American science, Blacks in Science presents a range of new information from Africanists. The book also includes bibliographical guides that are crucial to further research and teaching. The lineaments of a lost science are now emerging and we can glimpse some of the once buried reefs of this remarkable civilization. A lot more remains to be revealed. But enough has been found in the past few years to make it quite clear that the finest heart of the African world receded into the shadow while its broken bones were put on spectacular display. The image of the African, therefore, has been built up so far upon his lowest common denominator. In the new vision of the ancestor, we need to turn our eyes away from the periphery of the primitive to the more dynamic source of genius in the heartland of the African world. -- Ivan Van Sertima

â™ Book Title : Unexpected Faces in Ancient America 1500 B C A D 1500
✍Author : Alexander von Wuthenau
â™›Publisher : Crown
♣Release Date : 1975
âśżPages : 240
â™ ISBN : UTEXAS:059173017999100
♬Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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đź“ťUnexpected Faces in Ancient America 1500 B C A D 1500 Book Synopsis : Finds evidence in ancient Indian stone images supporting the theory of Semitic and Negroid peoples existing in the pre-Columbian Americas